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La Tradicion Del Planeta Venus en la Cultura Taina y La Maya......Planet Venus Traditions in Taino and Maya Cultures

 

 

En la cultura de los antiguos Tainos existio una tradicion que comprendia enlaces entre la leyenda del heroe mitico Guaguyona y los ciclos del planeta Venus. Esta coneccion entre las leyendas y los movimientos ciclicos de los astros celestes es una caracteristica que se manifesta en casi todas las culturas del mundo. El estudioso Sebastian Robiou Lamarche  hizo una contribucion significativa a los procedimientos del CONGRESO INTERNACIONAL DE AMERICANISTAS numero 46 que se llevo a cabo en Holanda en el 1988 con respect a esto. Esa contribucion fue titulada "ASTRONOMIA PRIMITIVA ENTRE LOS TAINOS Y LOS CARIBES DE LAS ANTILLAS". 

In the culture of the ancient Tainos there existed a tradition which included links between the legend of the mythic hero Guaguyona and the cycles of the planet Venus. This connection between legend and the cyclic movements of celestial bodies is a characteristic that manifests itself in practically every culture of the world. The scholar Sebastian Robiou-Lamarche made a significant contribution referencing this topic to the proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AMERICAS number 46 that took place in Holland in 1988. That contribution was called "PRIMITIVE ASTRONOMY AMONG THE TAINOS AND CARIBS OF THE ANTILLES".

 

Dr Sebastian Robiou-Lamarche

 

Esta ponencia incluyo un analisis  de las narraciones sagradas de varios pueblos indigenas de Sudamerica y Centroamerica, y los vinculos entre esas tradiciones mitologicas y las de nuestros antepasados tainos. Uno de los conceptos mas importantes que Robiou-Lamarche demonstro en su presentacion fue la relacion entre el episodio de la mitologia taina que incluye las aventuras del heroe cultural, Guaguyona (Guahayona) y el ciclo del planeta Venus. Este personaje se presenta desde el principio de la narracion segun el cronista Ramon Pane como un lider, o persona principal. Guaguyona ejerce la autoridad necesaria para ordenar que un miembro de la communidad primordial que moraba en la cueva ancestral de Cacibajagua, saliera de la cueva a buscar la hierba medicinal digo. Y es muy probable que a los otros miembros de esa communidad que tenian responsabilidades, como, por ejemplo Macocael, el que mantenia guardia en la puerta se les fue proporcionadas esas responsabilidades por el mismo Guaguyona. Tambien despues, Guaguyona disponia de la fuerza de caracter necesaria para coercer a todas las mujeres de esa comunidad a que abandonaran a sus esposos e hijos para salir de la cueva con el. Robiou-Lamarche opina que Guaguyona era destinado a ser el primer behike (chaman o guia espiritual), pero  nosotros estamos convencidos que Guaguyona no fue behike, sino kasike (el jefe principal), que desde su dujo kasikal (banqueta-trono) tenia la autoridad de regir sobre la comunidad de la cueva ancestral. 

This thesis includes an analysis of the sacred narrations of various Indigenous peoples of South America and Central America, and the links between those mythological traditions and those of our Taino ancestors. One of the most important concepts that Robiou-Lamarche demonstrated in his presentation was the relationship between the episode within Taino mythology that includes the adventures of the cultural hero Guaguyona (Guahayona) and the cycles of the planet Venus. This character appears from the very beginning of the narration, according to the chronicler Ramon Pane as a leader or head-man. Guaguyona exercises sufficient authority as to be able to order that a member of the primordial community that dwelled in the ancestral cave Casibahagua, should leave the safety of the cave and go out in search of the medicinal herb "digo". And it is very probable that other members of the cave community who had responsibilities, such as Macocael, the one who kept watch at the entrance of the cave, were also given those responsibilities by the same Guaguyona. Also, later in the story, that same Guaguyona possessed enough force of character to coerce all the women of the cave community  to abandon their husbands and children, and accompany him on a great exodus out and away from their home.  Robiou-Lamarche is of the opinion that Guaguyona was destined to be the first behike (shaman or spiritual leader), but we are convinced that Guaguyona was not a behike...that instead he was a kasike (principal chief), who from his kasike duho (throne-stool) had the authority to rule over the ancestral cave community.   

ecsena de la serie video TAINO CHRONICLES que representa a Guaguyona dandole ordenes a Yaubaba

 

La travesia de Guaguyona comienza cuando el protagonista se enoja al pensar que sus ordenes no son obedecidas. Su reaccion de furia es exajerada e inapropiada, y se manifesta en forma de rebelion contra las normas de la cultura taina. El caudillo usa su autoridad y carisma para convencer a todas las mujeres de la comunidad que abandonen a sus esposos y a sus hijos y que se retiren de la cueva con el. Este terrible crimen separa a las mujeres de la comunidad tribal causando una grave condicion de desequilibrio en la tribu. Todo el elemento femenino se a desaparecido de la comunidad, dejando solamente al element masculino. Al ausentarse esas madres de sus hijos peque~os los mas vulnerables de ellos se mueren de hambre porque no queda nadie que los amamanten. Los esposos se encuentran inutiles en sus esfuerzos de salvar a las criaturitas hambrientas y esos chiquillos se convierten en ranitas que llaman y hacen el sonido "toa" "toa".

Guaguyona emprende su viaje legendario en compa~ia de las mujeres pero lo alcanza el kasike falso Anakakuya, que es su cu~ado. Guaguyona llega a comprender que sus mismas acciones han causado que un usurpador se halla apoderado del dujo kasikal, y esta rigiendo en su ausencia. Guaguyona, reconociendo que solo atravez del sacrificio del kasike falso se puede empezar a rectificar el desastre que el mismo a causado en la comunidad, se propone a correjir sus errores. Primero tiene que derrotar a Anakakuya. Lo hace atravez del enga~o. Estando los dos en una canoa en el mar, Guaguyona convence a Anakakuya que mire al agua para ver un precioso cobo (caracol marino). Cuando Anakakuya se inclina hacia el aguua a ver el cobo, Guaguyona lo agarra por las piernas y lo arroja al mar ahogandose el falso caudillo. Esta accion produce el fenomeno astronomico en el cual la constelacion OSA MAYOR, que representa a Anakakuya, se desliza cada a~o detras del horizonte marino durante su movimiento nocturno alrededor de la estrella polar reproduciendo el drama de la derrota del lider falso. De acuerdo a Robiou Lamarche los movimientos de las estrellas alrededor de la polar fija causan que el firmamento nocturno le presente a los antiguos antillanos un guia atravez el cual pueden navegar las aguas del Caribe en sus canoas marinas. El sacrificio de Anakakuya logra la navecacion taina y Guaguyona es el primer nauta.

El estudioso John Major Jenkins propuso en su libro COSMOGENESIS 2012, que los movimientos de las constelaciones OSA  MAYOR, OSA MENOR y la estrella polar, al hundirse la primera detras del horizonte tropical representan en la tradicion spiritual de los antiguos mayas, la caida del falso magnate Vukub Cakix (conocido tambien por el nombre "Siete Guacamayo" o "Seven Macaw"). Este personaje legendario representa un lider ilegitimo quien pretende ser la deidad solar, el centro cosmico (0 sea un kasike de la sangre real), pero no lo es. Es un  centro cosmico falso, un kasike falso, y debe de ser derrotado por los gemelos sagrados Hun Ajpu e Ixbalamque. la derrota de Vukub Cakix permite la creacion del universe. Esto refleja un paralelo con la propuesta de Robiou-lamarche que el sacrificio de Anakakuya tambien permite que ciertos eventos muy importantes se lleven a cabo. 

Guaguyona's legendary trajectory begins when this protagonist becomes angry upon arriving at the conclusion that his orders are not being obeyed to his satisfaction. His furious reaction is exaggerated and inappropriately extreme, and it manifests itself in the form of a rebellion against the norms of Taino culture. This head-man uses his authority and charisma to persuade all the women of the cave to abandon their husbands and children, and to leave the cave with him. This terrible crime separates all the women from the rest of the tribal community,creating a grave condition of imbalance in the tribe. The whole complete female element of is suddenly not there in the community, leaving only the masculine element. When these mothers become separated from their little children the most vulnerable ones begin to starve to death because there is no one there to nurse them. The fathers find themselves helpless in their efforts to save the hungry little ones, who turn into small frogs as they die and cry out, repeating the word "toa", "toa" in their death throes.

Guaguyona sets off on his mythic journey in the company of the women but eventually they are overtaken by the false kasike Anakakuya, who is his brother-in-law. Guaguyona then realizes that his own actions have caused that an usurper has taken control of the kasike duho and is ruling in his absence. Guaguyona recognizes that only through the sacrifice of the false kasike can he begin to rectify the disaster that he himself has caused in the community. He decides to correct his errors. First he must defeat Anakakuya. He does accomplish this feat through trickery. There is a point in the story in which he finds himself alone with Anakakuya in a canoe on the ocean. Guaguyona convinces Anakakuya to gaze into the waters to look at a lovely cobo (large seashell). When Anakakuya leans over the canoe's gunwale to look at the cobo Guaguyona grabs him suddenly by the legs and tosses him into the water.  The false leader drowns. This action produces the astronomical phenomenon in which the Big Dipper constellation, which represents Anakakuya, slides behind the marine horizon during part of its nightly spin around the North Star, as if falling into the water, at a specific time of the year, every year. This reproduces on an annual basis, the drama of the defeat of the false leader. According to Robiou-Lamarche, the movements of the stars around the fixed North Star causes the night-time sky to present to the ancient Antillians a guide via which they could navigate the waters of the Caribbean in their marine canoes. The sacrifice of Anakakuya allows for Taino navigation to come about and Guaguyona is the first navigator. 

The independent scholar John Major Jenkins, in his book COSMOGENESIS 2012, proposed that the movements of the BIG DIPPER and LITTLE DIPPER constellations around the North Star represented in the spiritual tradition of the ancient Mayas, the fall of the false magnate Vukub Cakix (known also by the name "Seven Macaw") when the Big Dipper sinks behind the tropical horizon into the sea. This legendary character represents an illegitimate leader who pretends to be the solar deity, the cosmic center itself (in other words, a kasike of the royal blood), but he is not. He is a false cosmic center, a false kasike, and he must be defeated by the sacred twins Hun Ahpu and Ixbalamque. The defeat of Vukub Cakix allows for the process of the creation of the Universe to be carried out. This reflects a parallel between this and the proposal by Robiou-Lamarche that the sacrifice of Anakakuya also allows for certain very important things to take place.

 

Habiendo eliminado a su competidor, Guaguyona reanuda su viaje y pronto sus acciones de rebeldia tienen por consequencia el castigo spiritual. El lider se enferma manifestandose postulos en su piel. El se trata de curar, lavandose el cuerpo pero no puede lograr la sanacion. Al fin se ve obligado a abandonar a las mujeres que hurto y las deja en una region llamada Matinino, palabra que indica que ese es un lugar donde no existen hombres.  Guaguyona sigue su viaje en busqueda de sanacion. Al fin llega a la region llamada Guanin donde, a la orilla del mar o de otro cuerpo de agua, vive la behike (curandera) llamada Guabonito. Es ella la unica que puede curar los males de Guaguyona, poniendolo en una guanara, que es el famoso ba~o a base de vapor (sweatlodge) que se usa por toda Centro American bajo el nombre de temazcal. El tratamiento de Guabonito logra curar al kasike y el se siente muy agradecido. Entonces Guabonito, en su posicion de abuela tradicional, le proporciona el guanin de oro, emblema de su posicion de lider, y simbolo solar. Tambien le entrega amuletos de piedra llamados "cibas" que le asegura la victoria. Guabonito le cambia el nombre a "Albeborael Guahayona", palabra que indica que este hombre esta forjando un nuevo inicio en su vida. Ahora Guaguyona puede volver a la cueva, asumir de nuevo su posicion de kasike y causar que hayan de nuevo mujeres en la comunidad de la cueva atravez de la magia del pajaro sagrado Inriri (pajaro carpintero).

 

Robiou lamarche interpreta la travesia de Guaguyona en forma de un viaje de Oeste a Este, desde Casibajagua hasta Guanin, donde recibe la sanacion de Guabonito. El estudioso interpreta ese viaje como la representacion del ciclo del planeta Venus, cuyo tramo comienza con un termino de dias durante los cuales el astro se ve todas las tardes al anochecer cuando se pone el sol y se oscurece el cielo. Venus aparece cada noche en el oeste siguendo al sol hacia el horizonte oxidental. O sea...se pone el sol y despues se pone Venus. Este fenomeno dura 250 dias durante los cuales Venus es visible en el oeste cada noche, siguendo detras del sol antes de ocultarse tras el horizonte oxidental.  Se le llama "Venus Vesperino". Al final de ese termino de tiempo comienza un period durante el cual Venus viaja hacia el oeste  tan proximo al astro solar que ya no se puede ver su movimiento hacia el horizonte. Los dos se ponen en el oeste casi juntos. Este fenomeno se llama "conjuncion" y dura solo 8 dias y al fin de ese termino de tiempo Venus comienza a aparecer en el Este adelantandose al sol y emerge en el horizonte oriental todas las ma~anas antes del sol. Durante esos dias en los cuales se le llama "matutino" Venus emerge en el oriente primero, en la oscuridad de la noche, horas antes de amanecer, y entonces, luego, desaparece en la deslumbrante iluminacion del sol cuando este nace tambien en el este, como siguiendolo. Esto dura unos 236 dias. Al final de ese termino de tiempo Venus llega a nacer tan immediato al sol que ya no se ve porque los dos nacen casi al mismo tiempo en el este, y la luz del sol no permite que se vea salir Venus. Este fenomeno es otra  "conjuncion", y causa una temporada de 90 dias durante los cuales el planeta Venus no se puede ver porque todos esos dias nace en el este por las ma~anas, casi al mismo tiempo que el sol. Despues de esa segunda conjuncion Venus reaparece de nuevo en el oeste poniendose detrals del sol y  comenzando de nuevo el ciclo entero. 

Robiou Lamarche represento ese drama astronomico en un diapositivo que uso en su discurso explicatorio.

Having defeated his competition, Guaguyona resumes his journey but soon his rebellious actions bring about the inevitable spiritual punishment. The leader gets sick manifesting pustules upon his flesh. He tries to cure himself through body baths but his efforts are fruitless. Finally he is forced to abandon the women that he stole away and leaves them in a place called Matinino, a word that indicates that in this place there are no men. Guaguyona continues his trek still searching for a healing. At last he arrives in a region called GUANIN, where a female behike (healer) lives on the shore of the sea or some other body of water. She is the only one who can cure the ailment of Guaguyona, placing him in a guanara, which is the well-known steam bath (sweatlodge) that is used all over Central America under the name of "temazcal". This treatment by Guabonito succeeds in curing the kasike and he then feels very grateful. Then Guabonito, in her position as traditional elder and grandmother, provides him with the gold guanine medallion, the emblem of his leadership position, and the symbol of solar power. She also gives him stone amulets called "cibas" that asure him victory. Guabonito changes his name to "Albeborael Guahayona", a word that indicates that this man is forging a new beginning in his life. Now Guaguyona can return to the cave, reassume again his position as kasike and cause there to be women in the cave community via the magic of the sacred bird inriri (woodpecker).

 

Robiou-Lamarche interprets Guaguyona's trajectory in the form of a journey from West to East, from the cave Casibahagua all the way to Guanin, where he receives Guabonito's healing. The scholar interprets this journey as the representation of the cycle of the planet Venus, whose trajectory begins with a period of days during which the star is seen to set in the western horizon every morning just behind the sun. It can be observed setting in the West right behind the sun once the solar orb is gone from the sky and leaves it in the darkness of night.  In other words, the sun sets, and then right behind it Venus also sets. This phenomenon repeats itself every day for a period of  250 days during which Venus is visible briefly in the West each evening following after the sun before it itself also sinks into the horizon. During that period of time it is known as the "evening star". Finally after those 250 days of evening star appearances there occurs a period of eight days during which Venus sets in such close proximity to the setting sun that it is impossible to watch because the sun's glare blots it out. In other words....they set together. At the end of that period of invisibility Venus begins to rise in the East in the darkness of night just ahead of the rising sun.  During those days in which it is known as the "Morningstar" Venus emerges in the East first in the night-time darkness, hours before sunrise, and then, later in the morning, it disappears in the glare of the rising sun when it also rises in the east. The sun rises following behind Venus. This phenomenon lasts 236 days. At the end of that period of time Venus begins to rise in the East each morning so close to the rising sun that it is impossible to see since they are both rising together and the glare of the sun blots it out. This phenomenon is called also called "conjunction". It creates a period of 90 days during which the planet Venus can not be seen on any of those mornings since it is rising on every one of those days too close to the sun to be seen. After that conjunction Venus begins to become visible as an evening star in the Western horizon and the whole cycle begins all over again. Robiou-Lamarche represented this astronomical drama in a slide presentation which he used during his explicatory talk.

 

  La trayectoria del planeta Venus y su interaccion con el sol durante su ciclo puede ser util para muchas actividades practicas como, por ejemplo, la de la navegacion. Por otro lado este ciclo le ofrece al hombre primordial una fuente muy valiosa de simbolismo mitologico. Se sabe que los antiguos mayas concibieron vinculos entre el ciclo del planeta Venus y las actividades creadoras de sus deidades ancestrales. El famoso texto sagrado POPOL VUH de los mayas Quiche guatemaltecos contiene elementos literarios que se han comprobado alusiones al ciclo de Venus por los estudios del famoso antropologo Dennis Tedlock y la arqueologa Linda Schele. Lease aqui una explicacion de la relacion entre el ciclo de Venus y las creencias espirituales de los mayas:

The trajectory of the planet Venus and its interaction with the sun during its cycle can be useful in regards to many practical activities, for example, the practice of navigation. On the other hand, this cycle offers humans a primordial source of valuable mythological symbolism. We know that the ancient Mayas conceived links between the cycle of the planet Venus and the creative activities of their ancestral deities. The famous sacred text called the  POPOL VUH of the Guatemalan Quiche Mayas  contains literary elements that have been confirmed by the noted anthropologist Dennis Tedlock and the archeologist Linda Schelle, to be allusions to the Venus cycle. Please refer to this passage about the relationship between the Venus cycle and Maya spiritual beliefs:

 

"A huge pair of jaguar masks decorated a temple facade at Cerros in about 50 BC. According to Schele and Freidel, the lower masks represent the sun at each horizon; the upper masks symbolize Venus as morning and evening star. In the Classical period (200-900 AD), Venus and the sun were identified with Hun Ahaw and Yax Balam, the "hero twins" who defeated the Lords of the Underworld, making creation of the present world possible.(3) Their tale remained part of Maya mythology. It is recounted in detail in the post-conquest Quiche Popul Vuh, which names them Hunaphu and Xbalanque. The mythological association between Venus and the sun has an astronomical foundation. Aveni suggests that it reflects Venus' "unique visual relationship to the sun". He notes that Venus "remains close to the sun, always becoming visible a few hours either before sunrise over the place the sun will come up, or after sunset over the place it went down".(4) The Aztecs identified Venus as a dog who leads the sun, and the souls of kings, to the underworld. The two-headed Maya "cosmic monster", illustrated in both the Dresden Codex and Classical inscriptions, is marked by Venus symbols on one head, and solar symbols on the other. It too likely represents Venus leading the sun. The hero twins myth cycle is an account of the apparitions of Venus. The heliacal rise of Venus, when it first rises in the morning sky in the east, marks the direction of sunrise and rebirth. Cosmical rise, when Venus rises at sunset in the west, is associated with evening and death. The period of invisibility between disappearance in the west at sunset and heliacal rise in the east marks Venus' sojourn in the underworld.(5) "

En el Circulo Caney nosotros mantenemos una observacion continua de la trayectoria de Venus y su relacion con los movimientos del sol, pues este fenomeno ciclico es una manifestacion de uno de los episodios mas importantes de nuestra CRONICA TAINA. Sin el legendario viaje de Guaguyona no pudo haber la relacion tan critica entre el ancestro taino y la navegacion en el mar.

 Este echo tambien se puede expresar en terminos espirituales dandole a Guaguyona, un lider que al principio erro, pero despues corregio sus errors, el crdito por establecer la navegacion spiritual de la nave del individuo por los mares tempestuosos de la vida. Es obvio que hay que superar los falsos kasikes de la arrogancia  que se remontan en la conciencia y la mente del individuo. Estos son kasikes emocionales que estan relacionados con el ego personal y que dialogan en la mente del individuo. Es preciso ahogar esos kasikes falsos de la mente y devolver al kasike verdadero de la razon, la inteligencia y la justicia al dujo simbolico que a de regir en la mente del individuo. El dujo kasikal que existe en la mente representa el verdadero eje cosmico arededor el cual gira todo el universo personal. Desde ese dujo el kasike autentico ostenta su autoridad y guia al ser humano.

 

In the Caney Circle we maintain a constant observance of the trajectory of the planet Venus and its relationship to the movements of the sun, since this cyclic phenomenon is a manifestation of one of the most important episodes of our TAINO CHRONICLES. Without the legendary journey of Guaguyona there would never have been the critically important relationship between our Taino ancestors and the art of marine navigation.

This fact, also can be expressed in spiritual terms. giving Guaguyona, a leader who at first made huge mistakes but who later made amends, the credit for establishing the symbolic element of spiritual navigation of the craft of the individual human being, as he or she sails it over the tempestuous seas of Life. It is obvious that it is crucial to separate and set aside the false rulers, the false kasikes that manifest in the form of arrogance and try to rise to supremacy in the consciousness and the mind of the individual human being. Those are the imaginary "kasikes" that dwell in each person's mind and are more linked to the personal ego and carry on a destructive dialog in that mind. It is important to drown those ghostly false kasikes of the mind and return the legitimate kasike of true reason, intelligence and justice to the symbolic duho-throne of the human head so that he can rule over the mind of the individual. The kasike duho that exists in the mind represents the true cosmic axis around which the whole of the personal Universe rotates. From this duho the legitimate inner kasike demonstrates his true authority and guides the human being.

 

Seneko Kakona

Taino Ti

Miguel

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Comment by Miguel Sobaoko Koromo Sague on January 24, 2016 at 4:34pm

De acuerdo a la tradicion maya la sequencia de Venus que se esta desenvolviendo corrientemente dura ocho an~os, como es comun. Contiene cinco ciclos de 548 dias cada uno.  Esta sequencia comienza el dia 6 de Abril de 2009 y termina el dia treinta de Marzo 2017. Hoy 24 de Enero de 2016 nos encontramos a principios del ciclo numero 5 de esta sequencia, que es el ultimo. Cuando este ciclo se concluya en Marzo de 2017 se iniciara la proxima sequencia.

According to Maya culture the Venus sequence currently taking place lasts 8 years as usual. It contains five cycles of 584 days each. This current sequence began on April 6 of 2009 and ends on March 30 of 2017. Today January 24 of 2016 we are currently at the beginning of the fifth cycle of this sequence. This fifth cycle is the final one in the sequence. When this fifth cycle concludes on March 30 a whole new sequence will begin.

Los cinco ciclos de la presente sequencia:

The five cycles of the current sequence:

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CICLO #1 Abril 2009 a Noviembre 2010

CYCLE #1 April 2009 to November 2010

CICLO #2 Noviembre 2010 a Junio 2012

CYCLO #2 November 2010 to June 2012

CICLO #3 Junio 2012 a Enero 2014

CYCLE #3 June 2012 to January 2014

CICLO #4 Enero 2014 a Agosto 2015

CYCLE #4 january 2014 to August 2015

CICLO #5 Agosto 2015 a Marzo 2017

CYCLE #5 August 2015 to March 2017

Notes

La Bruja

Created by Miguel Sobaoko Koromo Sague Apr 4, 2016 at 12:07am. Last updated by Miguel Sobaoko Koromo Sague Apr 4, 2016.

Angel Rodriguez Caguana archeoastronomy

Created by Miguel Sobaoko Koromo Sague Mar 29, 2016 at 3:10pm. Last updated by Miguel Sobaoko Koromo Sague Mar 29, 2016.

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